Akhal Velayat

Akhal velayat is located in the center of the southern part of Turkmenistan at the border of Karakum desert.  Its climate is sharply continental with hot and dry summer. The area of Akhal is 98 000 km2 and its population is about 700 000 people. The administrative centre of this velayat is Anau city, other big towns are Abadan and Tedzhen.
Akhal velayat is an important industrial region of Turkmenistan, having such major industrials as natural gas extraction, the production of building materials and textile production – the biggest in the world factory of denim, knitted and cotton fabrics has been put into operation in Geok depe and Kaka in resent years.
The agricultural priorities are given to the cultivation of fine-fibered cotton, vegetables and stockbreeding. The tourist itineraries around the velayat are diverse and interesting. Some of them make the acquaintance with historical and architectural monuments of towns – fortresses of Khivabad and Abiverd, the ancient town of Serakhs and pilgrim routes to the sacred places of Ak Ishan, Dowgala, Zengi Baba, Kyrk-Gyz, Archman-Ata, Shekshi-Islam and Abul-Seid Meikhene. Perfect rest and medical treatment can be offered at the heart resort of Archman known since the old times for its curative properties of radon mineral waters. There is also a unique cave with the underground lake “Kow-Ata”. This cave is 250m long, 65m. deep and 50m. wide. The water of this lake is constantly warm, clean and contains 30 chemical elements of the periodic table. The south of Akhal is rich of mountain ravines, which represent wonderful place for picturesque picnic. The magic mountains in the area of Archabil and Geokdere are very good for mountaineering under a supervision of a skilful trainer. This magnificent land is the motherland of the beautiful breed of horses – Akhalteke. 

Lebap Velayat

Lebap velayat is located on the both side of the Amu Darya River; having the Karakum desert on the left and the Karabil hills in the north. In northwest of the right bank of the river there is the edge of Kyzylkum desert, in the center Sundukli sands, in the southeast the mountain range Kugitang. The area of the velayat equals 94 000 km2. The capital is Turkmenabad, other industrial towns are Atamurat, Magdanly and Seydi.

The climate of Lebap is sharply continental, droughty hot summer and moderately cold winter. The main industries are gas, food, textile and chemical branches – ammonium and carbamide works, a modernized gin in Turkmenabad.

Animal husbandry and agriculture are also well – developed braches of the region. Lebap velayat has good prospects regarding industrial and transport development. Tourist itineraries around the region include a trip to the reserved places of the Kugutang – magnificent mountains with luxurious primeval nature and abundance of the rare species of animal and plants. One can see here not only a sparking “Lunar landscape” and “Plateau of Dinosaurs” with paw prints of the pre-historic reptiles, but also contemplate wonderful pictures of the karst caves created by the nature’s fantasy. The other word wide known reserve is Repetek Biosphere Reserve that has many endemic species of representatives of flora and fauna. Besides, Lebap land also keeps many other secrets you can get in touch with just by visiting the city museum of Atamurat with its ancient caravanserais, mausoleums of Alamberdar and Astana-Baba, which continue to be the place of pilgrimage for many believers up to now.

Mary Velayat

Mary velayat is the southeastern region of Turkmenistan on the Turan Lowland, within the limits of the Karakum desert. The greater part of this region is represented by flat fertile lands and only the Unguz lowland that located in the north is occupied by saline soils of takyrs. To the west of the Tedzhen River, there is the plain of the Kopetdag Mountains connected in the south with the foothills of Paropamiz namely Badhyz Hills (1267m above the sea level). The area of this region is 87 000 km2 and its population is 1.2 million inhabitants. The administrative center is Mary city.

The following branches represent the industry: production of electric power, mineral fertilizers, cotton fabrics, knitted articles and others. The first in the country sugar refinery has been recently put into operation in the town of Mary. Stockbreeding and plant-growing branches are considerably advanced in the area. Mary historians refer to Turkmenistan territory as “the archaeological paradise” due to abundance of ancient burial-mounds, hiding inside the ruins of ancient towns. Mary velayat takes a special place in this respect. The main historical sight of this land is Ancient Merv. The excursion to Merv is like a magic travel in the time-machine back to II millennium BC. The images of the great past of Merv vividly appear in “Shakhudzhakhan” (“Soul of Kings”), city sites represented by ancient fortress walls, harmonious wonderful and ideally proportional mausoleum of Sultan Sandjar, the huge inverted cups-refrigerators (“sardobas”), where people kept snow, which never thawed even in most hot summer. In addition, among the most impressing sights of Mary velayat are the ruins of the ancient country of Margush. One day its inhabitants left this place, following the Murgab River that had changed its bed leaving behind the monuments of highest artistic and cultural heritage.

Balkan Velayat

Balkan velayat  is located in the western part of Turkmenistan, includes a deserted plateau on peninsula to the east of coast of Caspian Sea between Garabogazkol gulf and the city Turkmenbashy. The region is known for its succession of flat sandy hills and saline hollows. The south west of Balkan velayat lies in a dry subtropical zone that is good for such valuable fruit trees as fig, pomegranate, olive, pistachio and others. The area of the velayat is 139 000 km2. and its population is about 400 000 people. The capital is Balkanabad. Other industrial centers are Turkmenbashy, Khazar and Serdar. 

In the field of industrial development, the priority is given to the fuel-energy complex. Chemical and food industries are also of a great importance.

Recently the major gas mains such as Turkmenistan – Iran and Bereket – Serdar have been put into operation. These are a number of industrial enterprises – porcelain works, oil refinery and flour mill in Balkanabat. Large – scale restoration works have been carried out at oil and gas deposits of Burun and Korpedzhe. Balkan velayat is well known for its spinal rehabilitation sanatorium in Mollagara. This region has good  prospects in the field of tourism for ancient architectural monuments and excellent seacoast area. The Caspian coast is famous for its remarkable sands, clear water, abundant sea flora and fauna, favorable for underwater sports. The most popular seaside places are Khazar and Avaza (suburb of Turkmenbashy). Later it became the national tourist zone. The tourist itineraries around Balkan normally include a recreation at the Caspian coastline, trips to historical monuments such as mysterious, ghostly ruins of the medieval city of Dekhistan and others, as well as a visit to a wonderful, fantastically beautiful subtropical area of Turkmenistan, the valley of the Sumbar River in Garrygala. Tourists will make acquaintance with life and works of Makhtymguly Pyragy, outstanding Turkmen poet and classic of the oriental literature, in his native village Gerkez. 

Dashoguz Velayat

Dashoguz velayat is located in the northern part of Turkmenistan on the left bank of the Lower Amu Darya, in the Karakum desert. The area of this region equals 73000 km2 and its population is 1.1 million inhabitants. The northern part of the region is occupied by the ancient delta of the Amu Darya River, the Sarykamysh Hollow with a lake, and the southeast part - by the Ustyurt plateau. The administrative centre is Dashoguz city.

The climate of Dashoguz velayat is sharply continental with hot and dry summer and cold winter period. Mostly sands with rather poor vegetation as haloxylon, sedge and wormwood cover the territory of this region.

The branches of the economy are represented mainly by light and food industries. Among major enterprises is the cotton spinning mill and the textile complex in Dashoguz city as well as the production of building and construction materials. In the field of agriculture, the velayat is a big supplier of cotton, vegetables, fruits, gourds and grain cultures. Animal husbandry is also well developed.

Dashoguz velayat occupies a special place in history and culture of Turkmen land. The unique oriental architectural pearl of the Middle Ages was Urgench city (present Kunergench). The biggest diamonds in the diadem of religious buildings of Kuneurgench are the remained buildings of the mausoleum of Turabek-Khanim and the minaret of Kutlug-Timur. The majestic power of the magnificent fortresses of Devkesen, Shasenem, Izmukshir, Kenevas seizes every visitor.

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